EYE DISEASES: dry eye syndrome, inflammation and visual impairment.

eye diseases
eye diseases

EYE DISEASES: There are many eye diseases. Young people most often go to a doctor with complaints of dry eye syndrome, inflammation and visual impairment. In old age, in addition to the diseases mentioned above, the most common problems are cataracts, glaucoma and macular degeneration.

In order to raise the awareness of patients, we provide below information on the most common eye diseases.


A very common problem is inflammation of the mucous membrane. In this case, patients complain of tingling in the eyes, redness, lacrimation and suppuration. The inflammation occurs suddenly and interferes with your normal life. In adults, 70% of the inflammation is caused by viruses. There is no adequate treatment for such inflammations, but cold compresses on the eyelids and moisturizing drops help to alleviate the condition. Bacterial inflammation of the mucous membrane occurs in about 30% of cases, and it must be treated with eye drops containing antibiotics. In children, inflammation of the mucous membrane is mainly bacterial in nature, the eyes turn red and fester. In this case, antibiotic-containing drops will come to the rescue.
If you have complaints that indicate inflammation, first of all, you should visit your family doctor, who, if necessary, will prescribe anti-inflammatory drops. In case of recurring problems, it is wise to see an eye doctor.


An eye doctor is also often consulted with complaints of eyelid redness, tingling sensation and itching. Such symptoms may indicate inflammation of the edge of the eyelid, that is, blepharitis. As a rule, this inflammation occurs due to a malfunction of the meibomian glands, as a result of which they become clogged and the oily secret necessary for the tear film does not fall on the surface of the eye, but accumulates in the eyelid and becomes the cause of malaise. With the addition of a bacterial infection, inflammation increases.

With inflammation of the eyelids, massage helps, which activates their work. The inflammatory response is also mitigated by antibiotic ointments and the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which have a beneficial effect on the functioning of the meibomian glands.

When blepharitis becomes chronic, it can be accompanied by more severe inflammation of the eyelid, for example, barley and chalazion. In this case, an inflamed nodule appears on the eyelid, which, when pressed, causes pain. You can get rid of it with the help of ointments or surgery.


Cataracts are one of the most common eye diseases these days. We are talking about the clouding of the lens, as a result of which visual acuity decreases, a person sees objects indistinctly, and their image begins to double.

Cataracts are of different types, so complaints may differ. Cataracts mainly occur in old age, as metabolic changes occur in the lens of the eye. The size and water content of the lens can also change. As a rule, we are talking about irreversible changes in the anatomy of the eye. This means that cataracts cannot be prevented.

Very rare, but congenital cataracts also occur. It can also appear against the background of other diseases, with long-term medication and as a result of eye injury.

The only way to treat cataracts these days is surgery. During the operation, micro-incisions are made on the cornea of ​​the eye, through which, with the help of an ultrasound machine, cloudy fragments are removed, and an artificial lens is inserted in their place. As a rule, the operation is painless, carried out under local anaesthesia, is relatively short-lived and gives good results. The complication rate is 1: 10,000. Among the most common complications are intraocular inflammation or haemorrhage inside the eye, clouding of the posterior capsule of the lens. Clouding of the posterior capsule is very common. The problem can be corrected using a laser procedure.
Cataract surgery is paid for by the Health Insurance Fund. Such operations are performed in the largest clinics in Estonia.


Glaucoma is a chronic disease and common eye condition. This is eye diseases that develop under the influence of several factors. This means that for its diagnosis, several different painful abnormalities must appear. With glaucoma, intraocular pressure increases. In some forms of the disease, the pressure remains normal or even decreases. Normal eye pressure is 10–21 mm Hg. Art. If this figure rises, you should definitely find out the reasons. Basically, the problem is associated with the channels for the outflow of intraocular fluid, which for some reason are blocked and provoke an increase in pressure.

In the case of glaucoma, high intraocular pressure damages the optic nerve and the layers of nerve fibers in the tissue. This can be visually determined at an appointment with an eye doctor. Early disease can also be diagnosed using the GDX, OCT and HTR methods.

If about 60% of the nerve fibers are damaged, then the person has visual field disorders: fogging, partial perception of the picture, loss of the visual field. In this case, the disease is in an advanced phase. With increased intraocular pressure and structural and functional changes, treatment should be started with drugs – eye drops that reduce pressure. This treatment is permanent, sometimes it lasts a lifetime.

In some cases, laser treatment (SLT) can be performed in the outflow canals. If the methods mentioned above do not help, surgery can be performed, during which an outflow canal is created under the mucous membrane. Nowadays, there are different methods of treatment.


  • The manifestation of glaucoma in family members or close relatives
  • Myopia, that is, myopia
  • Age over 50
  • Thin cornea (with a thin cornea, intraocular pressure is higher)
  • Very high or low (especially at night) blood pressure
  • Diseases that can lead to repeated glaucoma (cataracts, diabetes, blood vessel diseases)

It is worth noting that if glaucoma has already provoked nerve damage, then it will not be possible to cure this, but thanks to adequate treatment, the disease can be kept under control.


Degeneration of the macula, or macula, is associated with metabolic disorders and appears in old age. As a result of the eye diseases, structural changes occur in the area of ​​the macula – in the area of ​​the eye that is responsible for visual acuity. With degeneration of the macula, the retina can become thinner, changes in the pigment epithelium occur, and toxins accumulate


Symptoms: decreased visual acuity, both far and near. It is the central vision that is impaired, the so-called black spot may appear before the eyes.

The disease has several forms. The first is a dry form, in which the structure of the macula changes, but there is no fluid under the retina. The second form is wet. With it, the pigment epithelium is disturbed, and due to damage to the blood vessels, fluid accumulates between the layers of the retina and the pigment epithelium. This provokes the appearance of edema, and new blood vessels are also formed, due to which bruises may appear in the retina and vitreous body.

Despite the fact that degenerative changes in our time are not yet treated, with changes it is recommended to take complexes of vitamins and minerals for the fundus of the eye and drugs that inhibit the development of the disease.
In the case of a wet form, special eye injections can be given to prevent the growth of new blood vessels and reduce fundus swelling. As a rule, one injection is not enough.

A doctor can assess the feasibility of treatment. Currently, there are many diagnostic tools (OCT, Spectralis) that accurately show structural damage and help plan treatment.


Often, patients complain about the appearance of flies, dots and strings before their eyes. They usually appear suddenly and move with the eyes. They are best seen against a white background and can be of different shapes. We are dealing with detached and freely moving cells of the vitreous body of the eye. From time to time they appear in front of the visual axis, so a person begins to see them.

Such complaints are found in both young and elderly people. In older people, complaints may be associated with another disease – age-related detachment of the vitreous body, as a result of which a thin membrane appears in front of the eyes and “pieces” begin to float before the eyes.

Flies are generally relatively harmless and do not require intervention. It is believed that these cells become smaller over the years, or people simply get used to them. But if many black dots suddenly appear in front of your eyes, forming a partial veil in front of your eyes, and the symptom does not go away, you should immediately consult an eye doctor. In the case of similar symptoms, we can talk about retinal detachment. This is a serious condition that requires prompt surgery.